Experimental Polymer Bearing Health Estimation and Test Stand Benchmarking for Wave Energy Converters



Published Sep 25, 2011
Michael T. Koopmans Stephen Meicke Irem Y. Tumer Robert Paasch


Ocean waves can provide a renewable and secure energy supply to coastal residents around the world. Yet, to safely harness and convert the available energy, issues such as bearing reliability and maintainability need to be resolved. This paper presents the application of a Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) based research methodology to derive empirical models for estimating the wear of polymer bearings installed on wave energy converters. Forming the foundation of the approach is an applicable wave model, sample data set, and experimental test stand to impose loading conditions similar to that expected in real seas. The resulting wear rates were found to be linear and stable, enabling coarse health estimations of the bearing surface.

How to Cite

T. Koopmans, M. ., Meicke , S. ., Y. Tumer, . I. ., & Paasch, R. . (2011). Experimental Polymer Bearing Health Estimation and Test Stand Benchmarking for Wave Energy Converters. Annual Conference of the PHM Society, 3(1). https://doi.org/10.36001/phmconf.2011.v3i1.2041
Abstract 150 | PDF Downloads 106



bearings, PHM system design and engineering, ocean renewables, wave energy converter, wear, test stand, wave energy

Agerschou, H., & Edens, J. (1965). Fifth and First Order Wave - Force Coefficients for Cylindrical Piles. In ASCE Coastal Engr. Speciality Conf. Ch. 10. pp. 239.

Aquamarine Power. (2011). (http://www .aquamarinepower.com/)

ASTM. (2009). G176 - 03(2009) Standard Test Method for Ranking Resistance of Plastics to Sliding Wear using Block-on-Ring Wear Test, Cumulative Wear Method.
(http://www.astm.org/Standards/G176 .htm)

Balaban, E., Saxena, A., Narasimhan, S., Roychoudhury, I., Goebel, K. F., & Koopmans, M. T. (2010). Airborne Electro-Mechanical Actuator Test Stand for Development of Prognostic Health Management Systems. In Annual Conference of the Prognostics and Health Management Society.

Bodden, D. S., Clements, N. S., Schley, B., & Jenney, G. D. (2007). Seeded Failure Testing and Analysis of an Electro-mechanical Actuator. In IEEE.

Caraher, S., Chick, J., & Mueller, M. (2008). Investigation into Contact and Hydrostatic Bearings for use in Direct Drive Linear Generators in Submerged Wave Energy Converters. In International Conference on Ocean Energy. Brest, France.

CDIP. (2011). Coastal Data Information Program. On the WWW. (http://cdip.ucsd.edu/)

Cowper, D., Kolomojcev, A., Danahy, K., & Happe, J. (2006). USCG Polar Class Aft Sterntube Bearing Design Modifications. In International Conference on Performance of Ships and Structures in Ice. Banff, Canada.

Cruz, J. (2008). Ocean wave energy: current status and future perspectives. Springer.

Dean, R., & Dalrymple, R. (1991). Water Wave Mechanics for Engineers and Scientists. World Scientific.

FERC. (2011). Hydrokinetic Projects. On the WWW. (http://www.ferc.gov/industries/ hydropower/indus-act/hydrokinetics .asp)

Ferrell, B. (2010). Joint Strike Fighter Program Fielded Systems Presentation. 2010 Annual Conference of the PHM Society.

Floating Power Plant. (2011). (http:// floatingpowerplant.com/)

Gawarkiewicz, R., & Wasilczuk, M. (2007). Wear measurements of self-lubricating bearing materials in small oscillatory movement. Wear, 263, 458-462.

Ginzburg, B., Tochil’nikov, D., Bakhareva, A., & Kireenko, O. (2006). Polymeric materials for water-lubricated plain bearings. Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 79, 695-706.

Goebel, K., Saha, B., Saxena, A., Celaya, J., & Christo- phersen, J. (2008). Prognostics in Battery Health Management. In Proc. IEEE.

Hinrichsen, D. (1999). Coastal Waters of the World: Trends, Threats, and Strategies. Island Press.

Holthuijsen, L. (2007). Waves in oceanic and coastal waters. New York, Cambridge University Press.

Lenee-Bluhm, P. (2010). The Wave Energy Resource of the US Pacific Northwest. MS Thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

Marcus, K., & Allen, C. (1994). The sliding wear of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene in an aqueous environment. Wear, 178(2), 17-28.

Marcus, K., Ball, A., & Allen, C. (1991). The effect of grinding direction on the nature of the transfer film formed during the sliding wear of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene against stainless steel. Wear, 151(2), 323- 336.

McCarthy, D. M. C., & Glavatskih, S. B. (2009). Assessment of polymer composites for hydrodynamic journal- bearing applications. Lubrication Science, 21(8), 331- 341.
Montgomery, D. (2009). Design and Analysis of Experiments 7th ed. John Wiley & Sons.

Morison, J., O’Brien, M., Johnson, J., & Schaaf, S. (1950). The Force Exerted by Surface Waves on Piles. Petroleum Transactions, AIME, 189, 149-154.
NDBC. (2011). National Data Buoy Center. On the WWW. (http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov/)

Ocean Power Technologies. (2011). (http://www .oceanpowertechnologies.com/)

Ochi, M. (1998). Ocean waves. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Ren, G., & Muschta, I. (2010). Challenging edge loading: A case for homogeneous polymer bearings for guidevanes. International Journal on Hydropower and Dams, 17(6), 121-125.
Ruehl, K., Brekken, T., Bosma, B., & Paasch, R. (2010). Large-Scale Ocean Wave Energy Plant Modeling. In IEEE CITERES. Boston, MA.

Rymuza, Z. (1990). Predicting wear in miniature steel- polymer journal bearings. Wear, 137(2), 211-249.

Saha, B., Goebel, K., Poll, S., & Christophersen, J. (2009). Prognostics Methods for Batter Health Monitoring Using a Bayesian Framework. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 58(2), 291-296.

Saxena, A., Celaya, J., Balaban, E., Goebel, K., Saha, B., Saha, S., et al. (2008). Metrics for Evaluating Performance Prognostic Techniques. In International Conference on Prognostics and Health Management, Denver, CO.

Steele, K., & Mettlach, T. (1993). NDBC wave data - current and planned. In Ocean Wave Measurement and Analysis - Proceedings of the Second International Symposium (pp. ASCE, 198-207).

Tang, L., Kacprzynski, G., Goebel, K., & Vachtsevanos, G. (2008). Methodologies for Uncertainty Management in Prognostics. In IEEE Aerospace Conference.
Thordon. (2011). SXL. On the WWW. (http:// www.thordonbearings.com/clean-power-generation/tidalcurrentpower/

Tsuyoshi, K., Kunihiro, I., Noriyuki, H., Shozo, M., &
Keisuke, M. (2005). Wear Characteristics of Oscillatory Sliding Bearing Materials in Seawater. Journal of the Japan Institution of Marine Engineering, 40(3), 402-407.
Tucker, M. (1991). Waves in Ocean Engineering: Measurement, Analysis, and Interpretation. Ellis Horwood, LTD.
Tucker, M., & Pitt, E. (2001). Waves in ocean engineering. Oxford, Elsevie.
Uckun, S., Goebel, K., & Lucas, P. J. F. (2008). Standardizing Research Methods for Prognostics. In International Conference on Prognostics and Health Management, Denver, CO.
Vachtsevanos, G., Lewis, F. L., Roemer, M., Hess, A., & Wu, B. (2006). Intelligent Fault Diagnosis and Prognosis for Engineering Systems. John Wiley and Sons.
Wang, J., Yan, F., & Xue, Q. (2009). Tribological behavior of PTFE sliding against steel in seawater. Wear, 267, 1634-1641.
Wave Dragon. .net/)
(2011). (http://www.wavedragon
Wavegen. (2011). (http://www.wavegen.co.uk/ what we offer limpet.htm)
W.D. Craig, J. (1964). Operation of PTFE Bearings in Seawater. Lubrication Engineering, 20, 456-462.
Yemm, R. (2003). Pelamis WEC, Full Scale Joint System Test (Summary Report). Ocean Power Delivery Ltd. (http://www2.env.uea.ac.uk/ gmmc/energy/energy pdfs/pelamis joint
system test.pdf)
Young, I. (1999). Wind generated ocean waves. Netherlands,
Technical Research Papers