Imbalanced Anomaly Detection Using Augmented Deeper FCDDs for Wooden Sleeper Deterioration Prognostics

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Published Sep 4, 2023
Takato Yasuno Junichiro Fujii Masahiro Okano

Abstract

Maintaining high standards for user safety during daily railway operations is crucial for railway managers. To aid in this endeavor, top or side-view cameras and GPS positioning systems have facilitated progress toward automating periodic inspections of defective features and assessing the deteriorating status of railway components. However, collecting data on deteriorated status can be time-consuming and requires repeated data acquisition because of the extreme temporal occurrence imbalance. In supervised learning, thousands of paired data sets containing defective raw images and annotated labels are required. Concretely, the one-class classification approach offers the advantage of requiring quite a few anomalous images to optimize parameters for training large normal images. The deeper fully-convolutional data descriptions (FCDDs) were applicable to several damage data sets of concrete/steel components in structures, and fallen tree, and wooden building collapse in disasters. However, it is not yet known to feasible to railway components. In this study, we devised a prognostic discriminator pipeline to automate one class classification using the augmented deeper FCDDs for defective railway components. We also performed sensitivity analysis of the mixture and erasing augmentations, and the deeper backbone rather than the shallow baseline of convolutional neural network (CNN) with 27 layers. Furthermore, we visualized defective railway features by using transposed Gaussian upsampling. We demonstrated our application to railway inspection using a video acquisition dataset that contains wooden sleeper deterioration. Finally, we examined the usability of our approach for prognostic monitoring and fu ture work on railway component inspection.  

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Keywords

Rural Railway Prognostics, Automated Visual Inspection, Decayed Wooden sleeper, One-class Classification, Damage Explanation

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